Thursday, September 08, 2011

Clue Found for Cancer Drug Resistance

A study of Science Translational Medicine shows a chemical reaction went into overdrive as conflict developed. Scientists said drugs were already on the market which interferes with the process. Cancer Research UK said the field offered "tremendous optimism". Researchers said “An international team of researchers were investigating the cancer drug cetuximab, which is used to treat colorectal cancer, head and neck cancers and some lung cancers.”

It targets a protein - epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) - which drives tumour growth. They said "all patients will ultimately develop resistance to cetuximab" but that little was known about how the resistance developed.Dr Pasi Janne, from the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute in Boston, said: "ERBB2 activates a critical signalling pathway that is not normally blocked by cetuximab, and in this way subverts cetuximab's function.

"Because ERBB2 isn't affected by cetuximab, this is an easy way for cancers to become resistant to the drug."

The researchers said several drugs which target ERBB2 had already been approved so "the findings from the current study can be used to design potential clinical therapies".

However, they caution that there are likely to be other ways that cancers can develop resistance.

Henry Scowcroft, science information manager at Cancer Research UK, said: "Unfortunately, patients' tumours can become resistant to treatment, and understanding why this happens is a major challenge in cancer research.


Wednesday, August 12, 2009

Qing Xian Feng Die

Common Names: Qing Xian Feng Die, Qing Tiao Feng Die, Qing Feng Die

Distribution: From plains to mountains of altitudes of 2500 meters.

Shape and Features:A sequence of green belts on the middle of the fore and hind wings. The bottom color of its wings is blackish brown; there is a row of green crescent line on the rims of hind wings. There is a delicate red line on the inner surface.

Habitual Behavior:Having great vitality, it likes to fly high at top of the trees, making itself difficult to be seen. This butterfly flies like a lighting and would only fly down to the ground when it needs to suck water or nectar. It is frequently seen a lot everywhere around the island.

Tuesday, August 11, 2009


Oils are fats that are liquid at room temperature, like the vegetable oils used in cooking. Oils come from many different plants and from fish. Some common oils are:
• canola oil
• corn oil
• cottonseed oil
• olive oil
• safflower oil
• soybean oil
• sunflower oil

Some oils are used mainly as flavorings, such as walnut oil and sesame oil. A number of foods are naturally high in oils, like:
• nuts
• olives
• some fish
• avocados
Oils from plant sources (vegetable and nut oils) do not contain any cholesterol. In fact, no foods from plants sources contain cholesterol.

A few plant oils, however, including coconut oil and palm kernel oil, are high in saturated fats and for nutritional purposes should be considered to be solid fats.

Solid fats are fats that are solid at room temperature, like butter and shortening. Solid fats come from many animal foods and can be made from vegetable oils through a process called hydrogenation. Some common solid fats are:
• butter
• beef fat (tallow, suet)
• chicken fat
• pork fat (lard)
• stick margarine
• shortening

Monday, August 03, 2009


Living things which are capable of creating their own light are called 'bioluminescent'. Science has known ever since William Beebe explored the darkness of the deep ocean that many deep sea marine species have glowing spots in strategic places or patterns on their bodies. Terrestrial species with similar abilities continue to be discovered. Many of these are small invertebrates and fungi, usually hidden from view in the dense rainforest vegetation, leaf litter or in the soil. Finding new species during the light of day is difficult enough. Finding a newly discovered species with abilities that can only be seen in the dark can be even more difficult.

How does a living thing create light?
Presented as simply as possible, bioluminescence occurs when the luciferase enzyme and the chemical luciferin react. A third element needs to be present for this reaction to take place which varies according to the type of animal or fungus. For example, in fireflies and glow worms, ATP is required; for jellyfish, calcium would be needed; and peroxide for earthworms. Oxygen is also sometimes required. Whatever the exact reactants are for each animal or fungus, the end result is the release of energy in the form of light.

Why would a living thing want or need to create light?
The chemical reaction described above and the resultant unstable by-product are often referred to by the experts as 'an excited state'. In some cases, this may be a clue as to why an animal might be bioluminescent but the situation is different for each type of animal that has the ability to glow. For fireflies, the ability to glow is useful for attracting mates. The glow worm has a better chance at a full dinner because it uses its pale green light to draw in a curious, unsuspecting meal.

Friday, July 17, 2009

India's Chandrayaan-1 spacecraft has experienced a technical problem

A sensor of the Chandrayaan-1 spacecraft has experienced a technical problem and steps have been taken to make sure it is capable to carry on its work.

However the chance remains that the mission might have to be cut short.

Chandrayaan-1 was launched on October 2009 and is considered as a most important key for India as it seeks to keep pace with other space-faring nations in Asia.

Scientists in the Indian Space Research Organization said that the "vital star sensor" of the spaceship had "malfunctioned".

ISRO spokesman S Satish said,” The mission is safe, but its lifespan may be affected”.

At present the spacecraft has been placed on a higher orbit, this might have an effect on the quality of the photographs being sent back after the problem is solved the spacecraft will be placed in the same place.

The spaceship is on a two-year task of examination.

The programmed probe will orbit the Moon, compiling a 3-D atlas of the moon surface and mapping the sharing of elements and minerals.

Friday, July 10, 2009


Heliophysics is a new word coined to represent the study of all the inter-related phenomena in the region of space influenced by the Sun, our star.Understanding the Sun, Heliosphere, and Planetary Environments as a single connected system is the goal of the Science Mission Directorate's Heliophysics Research Program. In addition to solar processes, our domain of study includes the interaction of solar plasma and radiation with Earth, the other planets, and the Galaxy. By analyzing the connections between the Sun, solar wind, planetary space environments, and our place in the Galaxy, we are uncovering the fundamental physical processes that occur throughout the Universe. Understanding the connections between the Sun and its planets will allow us to predict the impacts of solar variability on humans, technological systems, and even the presence of life itself.

Heliophysics is needed to facilitate the accelerated expansion of human experience beyond the confines of our Earthly home. Recent advances in technology allow us, for the first time, to realistically contemplate voyages beyond the solar system.

There are three primary objectives that define the multi-decadal studies needed:
• To understand the changing flow of energy and matter throughout the Sun, Heliosphere, and Planetary Environments.
• To explore the fundamental physical processes of space plasma systems.
• To define the origins and societal impacts of variability in the Earth-Sun System.

A combination of interrelated elements is used to achieve these objectives. They include complementary missions of various sizes; timely development of enabling and enhancing technologies; and acquisition of knowledge through research, analysis, theory, and modeling.

Tuesday, June 30, 2009

Story of Indian Tricolour

The first national flag in India is said to hoisted on August 7, 1906, in the Parsee Bagan Square (Green Park) in Calcutta now Kolkata. The flag was composed of three horizontal strips of red, yellow and green.
The second flag was hoisted in Paris by Madame Cama and her band of exiled revolutionaries in 1907 (according to some inl9OS). This was very similar to the first flag except that the top strip had only one lotus but seven stars denoting the Saptarishi. This flag was also exhibited at a socialist conference in Berlin.
The third flag went up in 1917 when our political struggle had taken a definite turn. Dr. Annie Besant and Lokmanya Tilak hoisted it during the Home rule movement. This flag had five red and four green horizontal strips arranged alternately, with seven stars in the saptarishi configuration super-imposed on them. In the left-hand top corner (the pole end) was the Union Jack. There was also a white crescent and star in one corner.
During the session of the All India Congress Committee which met at Bezwada in 1921 (now Vijayawada) an Andhra youth prepared a flag and took it to Gandhiji. It was made up of two colours-red and green-representing the two major communities i.e. Hindus and Muslims. Gandhiji suggested the addition of a white strip to represent the remaining communities of India and the spinning wheel to symbolise progress of the Nation.
The year 1931 was a landmark in the history of the flag. A resolution was passed adopting a tricolor flag as our national flag. This flag, the forbear of the present one, was saffron, white and green with Mahatma Gandhi's spinning wheel at the center. It was, however, clearly stated that it bore no communal significance and was to be interpreted thus.
On July 22, 1947, the Constituent Assembly adopted it as Free India National Flag. After the advent of Independence, the colours and their significance remained the same. Only the Dharma Charkha of Emperor Asoka was adopted in place of the spinning wheel as the emblem on the flag. Thus, the tricolour flag of the Congress Party eventually became the tricolour flag of Independent India.